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Dataset and Information Resources


The data/information collected and managed by NMSA covers from the upper tens centimeter layer of the Earth surface to the first tens of kilometers of the atmosphere. The datasets are huge in volume and diversified in forms: digital, textual, symbolic, cards, charts, reports, descriptive, satellite imageries, occurrence and non-occurrence of certain weather events etc. Some of the information gathered from the stations may be used directly but others need to be analyzed by professionals to change to useful information at the users level.

Major Information products of the Agency

ProductsThe following processed data are available
Raw and Processed Data

The data collected, after quality control operation, may be utilized directly or processed to meet the users demand. Processed data may includes: Hourly, Daily, Pentads, Weekly, Dekedal (ten daily), Monthly, Seasonal, Annual, Averages, Number of rainy days, Extremes (lower and upper), Potential evapotranspirations, Moisture indices, Crop Water satisfaction. / Crop water requirement indices, General crop conditions etc..

Maps  - Mean Annual Rainfall Distribution ofEthiopia.
  - Mean Annual Temperature Distribution ofEthiopia.
  - Agroclimatic Classification ofEthiopia.
  - Mean Annual Potential Evapotranspiration ofEthiopia.
  - Drought probability overEthiopia(Seasonal) .
  - Coefficient of Variation of Mean Annual Rainfall ofEthiopia.
  - And Others
Definition of the meteorological data sets (elements)
Element Definition

Hydrometeor consisting of a fall of ensemble of particles. The forms of precipitation are: rain, drizzle, hail, ice pellets, snow, snow pellets, and grains.

Daily Maximum temperatureMaximum temperature during continuous time interval of 24 hours.
Daily Minimum temperatureMinimum temperature during continuous time interval of 24 hours
Dry bulb temperatureTemperature indicated by a bare bulb thermometer exposed to the air and sheltered from direct solar radiation.
Wet bulb temperatureTemperature read from a wet-bulb thermometer exposed to the air but sheltered from direct solar radiation.
Dew point temperatureThe temperature to which volume of air must be cooled at a constant pressure and constant moisture in order to reach saturation; any further cooling causes condensation.
Soil temperatureTemperature observed at different depths in the soil.
HumidityWater vapour content of the air.
Relative humidity (RH)A type of humidity that considers the ratio of the actual vapor pressure of the air to the saturation vapor pressure. It is usually expressed in percentage.
RH1-calculated from dry and wet bulb temperature.
RH2-Relative humidity takenfrom thermo-hygrograph chart reading.
WindAir that flows in relation to the earths surface, generally horizontally.
Wind speed (at 2mts above the ground)The rate of the motion of the air on a unit of time.
Wind direction (at 10mts above the ground)The direction from which the wind blows.
Sunshine duration

The sum of all time periods during the day when the direct solar irradiance equals or exceeds 120 W/m2. This measurement is only obtained from configurations that measure direct solar irradiance.

EvaporationEmission of water vapour by the free surface of liquid water at a temperature below its boiling point.
Weather  - The state of the atmosphere at a particular time as    defined by various meteorological elements.
  -  Present weather: - weather existing at a station at the time of observation.

  - Past weather: -Predominant characteristic of the weather which had existed at an observing station during a given period of time.

PressureThe force per unit area exerted by the weight of the atmosphere above a point on or above the earths surface.
Station pressure

Pressure deduced from the reading of a barometer at the station after applying instrument corrections and, if necessary, reducing its value to the height of the station

Mean sea-level pressureAtmospheric pressure at mean sea level calculated from the observed pressure.
Pressure tendencyCharacter and amount of a station pressure change over three hours (over 24 hours in tropical regions).
Horizontal VisibilityMaximum distance at which an observer may see and identify an object lying close to the horizontal plane on which he is standing.
CloudA hydrometeor consisting of minute particles of liquid water or ice, or of both, suspended in the free air and usually not touching the ground. It may also include larger particles of liquid water or ice and non-aqueous liquid or solid particles such as those present in fumes, smoke and dust.
Low cloudCloud of low cloud etage. Stratus and stratocumulus are almost invariably low-level clouds. The base of the low cloud is from earths surface upto 2km.
Medium cloudCloud of medium cloud etage. Altocumulus is almost invariably a medium-level cloud. The base of the medium cloud is 2 upto  8 km.
High cloudCloud of high cloud etage. Cirrus, cirrocumulus and cirrostratus are high-level clouds. The base of the high cloud is 6-18km.
Total cloud amountThe fraction of the sky covered by the cloud of a certain genus, species, variety, layer, or combination of clouds.


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